The Church teaches that Adam and Eve left the Garden of Eden and went to Missouri, USA. A couple of early Church leaders taught that the Garden of Eden was in Jackson County (or Independence), Missouri but one stated that its location was unknown.
The recently leaked Guideline Responses to Common Questions is given to all General Authorities upon accepting their assignment. It contains the following response to the question “Was the Garden of Eden in Missouri?”
Strictly speaking, we do not know where the Garden of Eden was. Joseph Smith established a settlement called Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County, Missouri. While not an important or foundational doctrine, Latter-day Saints believe that Adam and Eve dwelt in that area after being expelled from the Garden of Eden. (emphasis added)
historic sites: Adam-ondi-Ahman
The page for Adam-ondi-Ahman states:
An 1835 revelation identified the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman as the place where Adam blessed his posterity after leaving the Garden of Eden (see Doctrine and Covenants 107:53–57).
Facts and sources: Settlement located in northwest Missouri. 1835 revelation identified valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman as place where Adam blessed his posterity after leaving Garden of Eden.
According to Joseph Smith, Adam-ondi-Ahman is where God talked with Adam and the place where Adam offered up sacrifices to the Lord. At Adam-ondi-Ahman, Adam called his family together before he died so he could bless them (see D&C 107:53–56).
Scripture study guide entry “Eden”:
… Latter-day revelation confirms the biblical account of the Garden of Eden. It adds the important information that the garden was located on what is now the North American continent.
From the 2021 For the Strength of Youth study guide, “What is Adam-ondi-Ahman? What is its importance?”:
Joseph Smith learned about Adam-ondi-Ahman through revelation and inspiration. It’s the name of a place near where Adam, the first man, lived with his wife, Eve, for at least some time. This was sometime after they were cast out of the Garden of Eden. Three years before he died, Adam gathered all his righteous descendants there and blessed them.
Joseph Smith Papers summary for Adam-ondi-Ahman, Missouri:
1835 revelation identified valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman as place where Adam blessed his posterity after leaving Garden of Eden.
Differing statements on location of the Garden
Two early LDS leaders identified Jackson County (and in one case Independence, specifically) as the location of the Garden of Eden, but Orson Pratt was not committed to a particular location.
In Jackson County, Missouri
Brigham Young’s history records him saying:1
You have been both to Jerusalem and Zion, and seen both. I have not seen either, for I have never been in Jackson County. Now it is a pleasant thing to think of and to know where the Garden of Eden was. Did you ever think of it? I do not think many do, for in Jackson County was the Garden of Eden. Joseph has declared this, and I am as much bound to believe that as to believe that Joseph was a prophet of God.
In Independence, Missouri
In an 1863 discourse, Heber C. Kimball identified Independence, Missouri, in Jackson County, as the location of the Garden of Eden proper:
… And I will say more, the spot chosen for the garden of Eden was Jackson County, in the State of Missouri, where Independence now stands; it was occupied in the morn of creation by Adam and his associates who came with him for the express purpose of peopling this earth. …
Exact location unknown
In an address in 1875, Elder Orson Pratt described the location of the Garden of Eden as “unknown”:
… Says one—“Do you mean to say that America was inhabited before the flood?” Yes, Adam dwelt on this continent. I do not know that the Garden of Eden was here, but we know from what God has revealed to us, that before Adam closed his days he dwelt on a certain portion of this continent with a great number of the righteous. All the righteous that lived on this continent before the flood, those who lived upon this continent who were righteous, who came from the Tower of Babel after the flood, and lived here some sixteen hundred years, before the nation was destroyed. …